Monday, June 20, 2005

Akhenaton

http://members.tripod.com/clayt/Humanities/Akhenaton.html
http://andrejkoymasky.com/liv/fam/bioa1/akhe1.html

Amenhotep was the pharaoh of Egyptian, between roughly 1380 and 1362 BC.

Amenhotep, sometimes called Amenhophis IV, changed his name to Akhenaton.

Akhenaton declared that Aton-Ra was the supreme god and Akhenaton was the sole spokesman of Aton-Ra.

Smenkhkare was reportedly Akhenaton's male lover and his co-ruler for 3 yrs.

Freud believed that Moses was an Egyptian and that Moses got his ideas from Akhenaton.

Akhenaton's chief wife was the beautiful Nefertiti.

Akhenaton may have suffered from Marfan's Syndrome, a disease of the connective tissue which is made worse by in-breeding.

Akhenaten built a new city half way between Thebes and Memphis, on the eastern banks of the Nile.

This 'Amarna period' produced art that was 'more relaxed'.

From this time comes the Hymn to Aten, composed by Akhenaten. Some people think it is the origin of Psalm 104, written centuries later.

Nefertiti apparently departed the scene.

Smenkhare reportedly became Akhenaten's lover.

There are various theories about Smenkhare:

1. he was Akhenaten's half brother.

2. he was Nefertiti in disguise.

3. he was Akhenaten's son.

Smenkhare married one of Akhenaten's daughters, Meritaten.

Akhenaten made Smenkare his co-regent.

Reliefs depict Akhenaten and Smenkhare in "scandalous" intimacy.

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http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/ancient/egyptians/amarna_06.shtml

Dr Marc Gabolde

"Some archaeologists have argued that Smenkhare and the pharaoh-queen are one and the same person. However, the image of Smenkhare alongside the royal wife Merytaten, in Meryre II's tomb at Amarna, and the exclusively masculine epithets referring to this individual in the same tomb and on a now-vanished block at Memphis, confirm that we are dealing with a man - as distinct from the pharaoh-queen Ankh(et)kheperure Neferneferuaten."

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http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Akhenaton

Under Akhenaton, the previously obscure god Aten became the supreme God.

Aten was the name for the sun-disk.

"The Aten was by this point in Egyptian history considered to be an aspect of the composite deity Ra-Amun-Horus. These previously separate deities had been merged with each other. Amun was identified with Ra, who was also identified with Horus. Akhenaton simplified this syncretism by proclaiming the visible sun itself to be the deity, introducing monotheism.

"Some commentators interpret this as a proto-scientific naturalism, based on the observation that the sun's energy is the ultimate source of all life.

"Others consider it to be a way of cutting through the previously ritualistic emphasis of Egyptian religion to allow for a new 'personal relationship' with God."

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Recently Ahmed Osman has claimed Moses and Akhenaten to be the same person.

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http://www.akhet.co.uk/amarna/akhmyst.htm

He was a political opportunist?

"When Akhenaten ascended to the throne the priests of Amun controlled much of Egypt. The temples were wealthy and powerful and Akhenaten may have seen their destruction as the way to further his own ambitions. Effectively in Atenism the Pharaoh was the only person who could make offerings directly to the God, which would have given him power as both religious and political leader."

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http://www.gayegypt.com/pharsmenreig.html

When the youthful and by all accounts extremely handsome Smenkhare was made co-regent the now alienated queen cut herself off and withdrew to the isolated North Palace with the young prince - Tutankhamun.

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