Saturday, October 29, 2005

Mediterranean customs?

http://heh.ca/percy/

Quotes from an article by William A. Percey III:

"Although we cannot prove a causal connection, democracy followed shortly after the institutionalization of pederasty in a number of Greek cities.

"Many if not most Greek theorists hailed pederastic couples as founders, restorers, or protectors of libery (such as the heroic pederastic Athenian tyrannicides Harmodius and Aristogeiton).

"They even associeted pederasty with eunomia ('good government').

"As a 2nd-century A.D. litterator pointed out: 'For they [Greek scholars] maintain that this practice is zealously pursued in those cities throughout Gellas which, as compared with others, are ruled by good laws.' [Atheneus, XIII 601c.]

"Mythographers, religious writers had by then justified the new way of life by ascribing pederasty to their heros and gods. Even Zeus came to have his Ganymede.

"Commercial success and immigration, especially of Ionians fleeing the Persians, made Athens the school of Hellas, the intellectual center of Greece. Athens became the greatest Hellenic metropolis in 480 B.C. by defeating the Persians at Salamis.

"By then, almost every upper-class Greek boy outside Sparta and Crete (both of which strictly limited intellectual instruction) had a devoted tutor, whom he in turn loved, to inspire him mentally as well as morally.

"As the great Victorian student of Greek pederasty, John Addington Symonds, declared:
What the Greeks called paiderastia, or boy-love, was a phenomenon of one of the most brilliant periods of human culture, in one of the most highly organized and nobly active nations. It is the feature by which Greek social life is most sharply distinguished from that of any other people approaching the Hellenes in moral or mental distinction."

~

http://www.glbtq.com/social-sciences/mediterranean_homosexuality,2.html

Extracts from an article by Matthew D. Johnson at www.glbtq.com

In fifth-century B. C. E. Athens, for example, sex between males that was socially sanctioned was conceived as a pedagogical relation between a man and a boy of approximately equal class status, if not age...

Sex between males in fifteenth-century Florence, for example, was stratified along lines of class as well as age, with unwed bourgeois men seeking out the favors of boys who prostituted themselves on city streets for clothes and other niceties...

Religious reformers railed from the pulpit against the crime of sodomy, so ubiquitous in Florence that an estimated two-thirds of the male population had engaged in it...

In the comedies of Aristophanes and in Roman satire, for example, effeminate men who desire to be sexually penetrated by men (and thus usurp the role of boys) are roundly ridiculed and denigrated; Amy Richlin has described these figures, characterized by the Greek kinaidos or the Latin mollis, as the proper historical antecedents to the modern homosexual...

Friday, October 28, 2005

Ronald Reagan

~

A column by Drew Pearson in the New York Post, 1967, reported that:

'a homosexual ring' had operated out of Governor Reagan’s office for six months 'with his full knowledge' and that the governor 'did not act until pressured by aides into firing the men'.

Pearson alleged that Art Van Court, Reagan’s bodyguard, had a tape recording ‘of a (homosexual) sex orgy which had taken place at a cabin near Lake Tahoe, leased by two members of Reagan’s staff.’

~~

The following paragraph is from: http://www.glbtq.com/social-sciences/republican_party.html

"The first organized and visible gay presence at a Republican National Convention occurred in 1984, when Ronald Reagan became his party's nominee for a second term. However, this presence did not prevent a conservative faction of the GOP from trying, but failing, to oust the newly formed Log Cabin Club, a gay Republican group, from the party in 1987. The effort to oust the Log Cabin Club may have failed because of Reagan's ties to the group."

~~

An 1989 Washington Times investigative report by Paul M. Rodriguez and George Archibald revealed that:

A Washington, D.C. boy prostitution ring was under investigation. The ring numbered among its clients high officials of the Reagan administration.

(“Homosexual prostitution inquiry ensnares VIPs with Reagan, Bush: ‘Call boys’ took midnight tour of White House,” June 29, 1989.)

“The investigation is said to be focused on illegal interstate prostitution, abduction and use of minors for sexual perversion, extortion, larceny and related illicit drug trafficking and use by prostitutes and their clients.”

Reportedly, one former top-level Pentagon officer said that for eight years, military and civilian intelligence authorities were concerned that 'a nest of homosexuals at top levels of the Reagan administration may have been penetrated by Soviet-backed espionage agents posing as male prostitutes.'

Reportedly, lobbyist Craig Spence conducted a 1 a.m tour of the Reagan White House on July 3, 1988 for six friends, including two homosexual call boys.

~

http://www.laststory.com/Ronald%20Reagan%20Fact%20and%20Fiction.htm

The following is from the above site:

Reagan knew many homosexuals in Hollywood and considered several of them close, personal friends... Marc Christian, the homosexual partner of the late Rock Hudson, wrote:

“The notion that a Ronald Reagan was a homophobe strikes me as silly beyond belief. Not only did he have several gay men on his staff when he was Governor of California, he called my lover, Rock Hudson, when he was on his deathbed just weeks before he died of AIDS and wished him well and voiced his and Nancy’s concern and prayers. The Reagans had known Rock for years and knew he was gay (as did most of Hollywood). …The point is, Reagan could have ignored Rock’s illness and didn’t.”

~

King Billy



William III, Prince of Orange, King of England (1650-1702)

1. 'King William of Orange, hero of anti-gay Loyalists such as Ian Paisley, had male lovers'.
http://www.socialistworker.co.uk/article.php?article_id=6323

2. At the time of Great Britain's King William III there was a gay court circle, 'consisting of more than a dozen members including King William and Van Keppel, the 20-year-old page who accompanied William to England and eventually received the title of Earl of Albemarle.
(Rubini, "Sexuality and Augustan England", pp. 349—381.)

In 1698 the Duchesse d'Orleans wrote to a friend that "nothing is more ordinary in England than this unnatural vice". (Cited by Gordon Rattray Taylor, "Historical and Mythological Aspects of Homosexuality", in Sexual Inversion, ed. Judd Marmor, New York and London: Basic Books, 1965, p. 141.)

She was amused by the description of the English court as un château de derriére. (Elisabeth Charlotte, Duchesse D'Orleans, Letters from Liselotte, trans. and ed. by Maria Kroll, New York: McCall, 1970, p. 70.)

King William 'was widely believed to belong to the sodomitical brotherhood'.
http://www.infopt.demon.co.uk/molly2.htm

3. Louis Crompton wrote, at http://www.glbtq.com/social-sciences/william_III.html

William had close and affectionate relations with two notable favorites, William Bentinck, whom he brought to England and made Earl of Portland, and a handsome younger Dutchman, Arnold van Keppel, whom he created Earl of Albemarle.

A spate of political satires accusing William of intimate relations with both men circulated during his reign. These scurrilous poems are quite explicit in their allegations...

4. The following are quotes from http://myweb.lsbu.ac.uk/~stafflag/williamiii.html :

In 1664 William Bentinck (1649-1709) joined Prince William's household as a page and instantly endeared himself to his master. In a year he became a courtier and a key figure in the household...

After the coronation William Bentinck was created Earl of Portland, and William III's lavish generosity soon made him one of the wealthiest men in England. He was made Groom of the Stole, Treasurer of the Privy Purse, and more. A painting of William Bentinck, Earl of Portland, (1698-9, studio of Rigaud) is in the National Portrait Gallery, London, and is reproduced in black and white in Colin Spencer, (1995).

The only Englishman who could compete for William III's friendship was the tall and handsome Henry Sidney who was created Earl of Rodney at the coronation.


~

Sunday, October 23, 2005

School indiscipline: solutions to the problem.

What are the solutions to the problem of bad behaviour in Schools?

1. Good teachers?
2. An uncorrupt media?
3. Good parents?

The UK Sunday Times, 23 October 2005, had an article entitled: 'Simple lesson of the Unteachables.'

The article pointed to a television series which 'has revealed the real solution: good teachers.'

'According to Ted Wragg, emeritus professor of education at Exeter University, who ran the course, there were three ingredients: making lessons fun and engaging, clear rules and one-to-one counselling aimed at helping each child discover a talent. '

Now wait a minute!

If you have a very, very sick child who has been neglected by parents and who has taken to drink and drugs, then what is the best solution:

1. a ten minute visit to an overworked local doctor?

or

2. several months in hospital receiving the sort of skilled and very expensive intensive care that is available to only a few people?

You answer: intensive care in hospital with top doctors and nurses is the best solution.

And disruptive children should have 'intensive care' in schools.

But you might also say:

Why did the child get ill in the first place? Should we be looking at bad parenting and the corrupting effects of the media?

And think about this:

How many over-worked teachers have the time to give one-to-one counselling to all those mentally ill and criminal children?

Bhutan had virtually no child crime until it got television and video. After Bhutan got TV and video, crime rates shot up.

Let us consider the importance of parents.

The following is from: http://www.divorcereform.org/crime.html:

Are children raised outside of intact marriages at increased risk for crime and delinquency?

All but three of 23 recent studies found some family structure effect on crime or delinquency.

Seven of the eight studies that used nationally representative data, for example, found that children in single-parent or other non-intact family structures were at greater risk of committing criminal or delinquent acts.

For example: A study using Add-Health data found that even after controlling for race, parents' education, and income, adolescents in single-parent familieswere almost two times more likely to have pulled a knife or a gun on someone inthe past year. (Todd Michael Franke 2000)

Six of seven studies that looked at whether overall rates of single parenthood affected average crime rates found that changes in familystructure were related to increases in crime.

For example:· A study that looked at the relation between divorce rates and out-of-wedlock birthrates and violent crime between 1973 and 1995 found that nearly 90% of the change in violent crime rates can be accounted for by the change in percentages of out-of-wedlock births. (Mackey and Coney 2000, p. 352)·

A study that looked at crime in rural counties in four states concluded, "[A]n increase of 13% in female-headed households would produce a doublingof the offense rate." (Osgood and Chambers 2000, p. 103)

Even after controlling for income, family structure is an important predictor of crime and delinquency...

A survey of 108 rapists undertaken by Raymond A. Knight and Robert A. Prentky revealed that 60 percent came from female-headed homes

70 percent of those describable as 'violent' came from female-headed homes

80 percent of those motivated by 'displaced anger' came from female-headed (single-parent) homes."

Of the juvenile criminals who are a threat to the public, three-fourths came from broken homes. Ramsey Clark, Crime in America: Observations on Its Nature, Causes, Prevention and Control (New York: Pocket Books, 1970), p.39. Cited in Amneus, The Garbage Generation.

A 1987 study found that divorce - regardless of the economic status of the disrupted family - posed the strongest correlation with robbery rates in American cities larger than 100,000 population...

Young men who grow up in homes without fathers are twice as likely to end up in jail as those who come from traditional two-parent families, according to a new study.

Cynthia Harper of theUniversity of Pennsylvania and Sara S. McLanahan of PrincetonUniversity tracked a sample of 6,000 males aged 14-22 from 1979-93.

They found that those boys whose fathers were absent from the household had double the odds of being incarcerated - even when other factors such as race, income, parent education and urban residencewere held constant...

Studies have shown that there is a strong correlation with the number of single parent families and the crime rate in a cities with a population over 100,000 regardless of the socioeconomics or racial composition of the city.

"No-Fault Divorce: Proposed Solutions to a National Tragedy," 1993 Journal of Legal Studies 2, 19 citing R. Sampson, Crime in Cities: The Effects of Formal and Informal Social Control. In M. Tonry & Morris, Crime and Justice 271-301 (1987).

The rate of violent crime and burglary is related to the number of single parent households with children aged twelve to twenty. "No-Fault Divorce: Proposed Solutions to a National Tragedy," 1993 Journal of Legal Studies 2, 19, citing Douglas A. Smith, G. and Roger Jarjoura, Social Structure and Criminal Victimiazation, 25 Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency 27-52 (1988).

A study showed that over half (53 percent) of the inmates of state correctional facilities had grown up without the benefits of a two parent household. "No-Fault Divorce: Proposed Solutions to a National Tragedy," 1993 Journal of Legal Studies 2, 19, citing B. Chapman, Fairness For Families: An Organing Theme for the Administration's Social Policies, 2 The Journal of Family and Culture 23 (1986).

Delinquency rates are 10 to 15 percent higher in broken homes than in intact ones. Brian Willats, Breaking Up is Easy To Do, available from Michigan Family Forum, citing Edward L. Wells and Joseph H. Rankin, "Families and Delinquency: A Meta-Analysis of the Impact of Broken Homes," Social Problems, 38:1, p. 87."

The greater the proportion of single-mother families in a neighborhood, the higher the delinquency rate."Don Terry, "Killed by Her Friends, Sons of the Heartland," New York Times, 18 May 1994, A1. Cited on page48 ofThe Abolition of Marriage, by Maggie Gallagher

A study conducted by two sociologists, Robert J. Sampson and W. Byron Groves, who analyzed data from hundreds of British communities found that in neighborhoods with a high percentage of single-parent homes the amount of crime was significantly higher...

"So powerful was the connection between disrupted families and crime that, once family status was controlled for, neither race nor income had any effect on the crime rate."

Among all possible contributing factors, "only divorce rates were consistently associated with suicide and with homicide rates."David Lester, "Time-Series Versus Regional Correlates of Rates of Personal Violence," Death Studies (1993): 529-534.

A recent study of 25,000 incarcerated juveniles made by the Bureau of Justice Statistics indicates that 72 percent of them came from broken homes. Seventy-four percent of the nation's children live with two parents, 26 percent with one parent.

A child growing up in a single-parent home (usually female-headed) is seven times as likely to be a delinquent. Statistics from the Los Angeles Times, 19 September, 1988....


~

Saturday, October 22, 2005

They F*** You Up

http://www.guardian.co.uk/comment/story/0,3604,1598133,00.html

Extracts from an article by Oliver James, in the Guardian, 22 October 2005:

(Oliver James trained and worked as a clinical psychologist. He is the author of They F*** You Up - How to Survive Family Life.)

The psychiatric establishment is about to experience an earthquake that will shake its intellectual foundations. When it has absorbed the juddering contents of the latest edition of one of its leading journals, Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, it will have to rethink many of its most cherished assumptions...

The fact that some two-thirds of people diagnosed as schizophrenic have suffered physical or sexual abuse is shown to be a major, if not the major, cause of the illness...

The cornerstone of Read's tectonic plate-shifting evidence is the 40 studies that reveal childhood or adulthood sexual or physical abuse in the history of the majority of psychiatric patients...

There is now a vast body of evidence that early infantile deprivation and erratic or unresponsive care as a toddler make adults more vulnerable to depression and personality disorder -a close diagnostic relative to schizophrenia. See my (Oliver James) book They F*** You Up - How to Survive Family Life...

Rates of schizophrenia vary as much as 16-fold around the world, as does its course. It is less common in developing nations and tends to last much longer and be more severe in rich, industrialised nations compared with poor, developing ones...


~

Child abuse and schizophrenia?

http://www.schizophrenia.com/sznews/archives/001525.html

The following is taken from schizophrenia.com, 14 March 2005:

Child abuse and schizophrenia?

Abuse as predictor for schizophrenia?

The following series of reviews concern articles written about the relationship between child trauma, mainly sexual or violent abuse, and subsequent psychiatric illness. Certainly, child abuse is a rampant problem and one that has lasting consequences upon its victims. However, it is unclear precisely what risks are conferred upon those with violent childhoods. I did a brief review of the literature for articles that were about the risk of psychotic illness and schizophrenia in people with a history of child abuse.

The best article was written by Spataro, et al. It is a cohort study in which they looked at children born in Victoria, Australia from 1959 to 1991. They compared over 3,000,000 children (both males and females) with the 1621 reported cases of child abuse on file. They compared the rates of diagnosis of various psychiatric illnesses between the groups.

Summary of findings:

1. The rate of psychiatric illness in the abuse group was 4x that of the control group (12% vs. 3%).

2. Rates of schizophrenia and schizophrenia spectrum disorders did not differ between the groups.

3. There was a significantly increased risk of developing a mood disorder, behavioral disorder, childhood psychiatric disorder, anxiety disorder and personality disorder in the group that had reported abuse.

4. There was no significant difference in risk for alcohol and drug abuse between the groups.

5. Men were statistically more likely to have a behavioral and/or childhood psychiatric disorder than women, but no difference was seen in other disorders between sexes.

There were many limitations in this study. The way that the cases were found required them to have sought treatment in the public mental health facilities in Victoria. While most significant illnesses will be picked up this way, if someone was able to afford to only have treatment in the private sector, they might be missed as a case. Perhaps more importantly, the rate of reporting of sexual and physical abuse is very low. This means that the control group likely has a portion of its group that actually suffered some childhood trauma. It is worth noting however, that if that were the case, it would likely make the differences between the groups less. This is because if the control group actually had a significant number of abused people in the group, that group would begin to mimic the abused group and the differences would be less obvious. With a four fold difference between the groups this limitation may not have been a significant problem. However, it does appear that was too great a problem, though the authors speculate that the reason that there was no discernible difference between the groups with respect to alcohol/drug disorders may have been for that reason.

Additionally, it is important to keep in mind that while no difference was noted for schizophrenia, the mean age of subjects was in the early 20’s. Schizophrenia is a disorder that generally strikes in the late teens and early 20’s but by no means is finished by then. As a result, it is possible that cases of schizophrenia had not developed by the time of the data analysis for this study.

In the Read et al. (3), study from New Zealand, they looked at a sample of 200 consecutive patients seen in their clinic. Looking back at their charts, they calculated how many people had evidence in their records of having previous sexual or physical abuse. They found that people with history of abuse as children, both physical and sexual, had an increased likelihood of having hallucinations. Interestingly, there was not an increased risk of delusions, but all forms of hallucinations including auditory, tactile (feelings things touching), visual and olfactory (smelling things that aren’t there.) Of concern was that command auditory hallucinations (hearing voices that tell the person to do something, potentially self-injurious or violent), were also increased in the abuse victims compared to those without a report of mistreatment. The only difference shows with respect to delusional thinking was an increase in satanic/devil beliefs by children with either sexual or physical abuse.

There were limits to this study. Namely, it was performed as a chart review and therefore the information was limited to what was documented by the clinician originally seeing the patient and without the intent at that time of using the data for research. Therefore, it is possible that some of the history was not taken as precisely as it might have been had it been done for research purposes. It is also difficult always to know for sure the validity of abuse claims taken retrospectively. While there is no reason to assume that those with schizophrenia are any more likely than anyone else to report abuse inaccurately (both to include reports of abuse that didn’t happen or to deny abuse that did happen) it is something that is a source of question. In this case, the researchers note that their sample had a lower rate of abuse than is typically seen in research leading them to wonder if some victims were missed. There was corroboration of the sexual abuse claims in 70% of the cases, but not all, and there is no way to know precisely who wasn’t reporting abuse that should have. This study also did not control for parental effect. Abuse, as well as schizophrenia, are both known to be heritable. It is possible that if a parent was both someone who suffered abuse as a child and had schizophrenia, that might increase the risk for both in their offspring. It should be noted though that even when that factor is considered, in other studies, the relationship between abuse and schizophrenia has held up.

Overall, this study concludes that victims are childhood sexual abuse are roughly 2x as likely to experience the significant and serious symptoms of schizophrenia. Much of the increase was due to hallucinatory symptoms but there was some increase (though not necessarily significant statistically) for increased rates of negative symptoms and some delusions like devil/satanic beliefs. These results are in line with the other Read paper (#4) that also showed increase rate of hallucinations in people with a history of sexual abuse. That paper also emphasized the point that people with a history of sexual abuse, who also have hallucinations, are not having “pseudohallucinations” that are related only to the abuse, but are having equally serious psychotic symptoms as others who have hallucinatory sensations.

1: Spataro J, Mullen PE, Burgess PM, Wells DL, Moss SA. Impact of child sexual abuse on mental health: prospective study in males and females.Br J Psychiatry. 2004 May;184:416-21. PMID: 15123505
2: Read J, Hammersley P. Child sexual abuse and schizophrenia.Br J Psychiatry. 2005 Jan;186:76; author reply 76. PMID: 15690589
3: Read J, Agar K, Argyle N, Aderhold V. Sexual and physical abuse during childhood and adulthood as predictors of hallucinations, delusions and thought disorder.Psychol Psychother. 2003 Mar;76(Pt 1):1-22. PMID: 12689431
4: Read J, Argyle N. Hallucinations, delusions, and thought disorder among adult psychiatric inpatients with a history of child abuse.Psychiatr Serv. 1999 Nov;50(11):1467-72. PMID: 10543857



~~

Napoleon

~

Napoleon liked young men.

Andrew Roberts, at The Telegraph, 26 October 2005, reviewed:
http://www.telegraph.co.uk/arts/main.jhtml?xml=/arts/2002/11/03/bohib03.xml

'Napoleon: His Wives and Women' by Christopher Hibbert

According to Roberts, Hibbert's book is really an investigation into Napoleon's remark (made on St Helena): "Bah! Women! When you don't think of them you don't need them."

Hibbert finds that Napoleon "displayed homosexual tendencies".

Frank Richardson once wrote a book entitled 'Napoleon: Bisexual Emperor', which received little attention.

Hibbert, however, is Britain's most popular historian and his book has received more publicity.

Hibbert 'presents a Napoleon who announces that he feels physical attraction to handsome men "in the loins and in another place which shall be nameless".

Napoleon promoted and stared at attractive young men.

Hibbert suggests that the effeminate Chevalier de Sainte Croix may have been Napoleon's lover.

Napoleon is also accused of fancying his servants, Louis Constant and Roustam Raza.



~

Eleanor Roosevelt

Tina Gianoulis, at glbtq, has an article about Eleanor Roosevelt:

http://www.glbtq.com/social-sciences/roosevelt_e.html



During the 1930s, as Franklin prepared to run for president for the first time, Eleanor met a dynamic and feisty journalist named Lorena Hickok. Hickok was a star reporter for the Associated Press, as well as the nation's first woman sports reporter, and she and the tall, buck-toothed Eleanor soon became close friends.

Their friendship lasted for thirty years and was almost certainly sexually as well as emotionally intimate. After Franklin's election to the presidency in 1932, Hickok abandoned her career to work for the Roosevelt administration and be closer to Eleanor. They spent much of their time together, and when apart, exchanged thousands of letters full of passionate declarations of love. In one, Eleanor wrote, "I want to put my arms around you, I ache to hold you close."

~

Thursday, October 20, 2005

Liam Fox hits out at 'gay smears'.

http://www.thesun.co.uk/article/0,,2-2005480596,00.html

One of the candidates for the leadership of the UK Conservative Party is the right-wing Liam Fox.

Fox 'is transfixed by the US neocons and fantasises about creating a family-values religious right in Britain'.

Fox, aged 44, is dismissing 'gay smears'.

The Sun newspaper reports:

Tory leadership contender Liam Fox today hit out at gay “smears” just hours before the critical ballot of MPs.

Dr Fox did not directly answer questions about his sexuality in an interview with London’s Evening Standard.

But he said his recent engagement to cancer specialist Jesme Baird should end any gossip about his private life.

Dr Fox also appeared to take a swipe at favourite David Cameron’s refusal to say whether he has taken hard drugs.

“There are all sorts of smears going around and politicians should stick to the issue,” he told the paper.

“If someone accused me of doing something against the law I might feel bound to answer it.

“Otherwise I would have no comment to make."

~~

http://politics.guardian.co.uk/conservatives2005/story/0,16395,1584251,00.html

Polly Toynbee, in The Guardian, 4 October 2005, wrote:

As for Liam Fox, he is transfixed by the US neocons and fantasises about creating a family-values religious right in Britain.

He might be a surprise finisher if the Cornerstone group of 25 MPs swings behind him.

These moral rearmers are nicknamed the Tombstones: they would sink the party for another generation.

~~

http://news.independent.co.uk/uk/politics/article320816.ece

Dr Fox, a self-proclaimed Thatcherite, has set himself up as the most right wing of the contenders for the Tory crown. He has threatened to pull Britain out of Europe, and very publicly backed the decision to invade Iraq. He remains close to Margaret Thatcher...


~

Wednesday, October 19, 2005

Cocaine and heroin from Columbia; drugs and top people

~

EXCLUSIVE: VICE GIRL: I SNORTED COCAINE WITH TOP TORY BOY

http://www.sundaymirror.co.uk/news/news/tm_objectid=16254340&method=full&siteid=62484&headline=exclusive--vice-girl--i-snorted-cocaine-with-top-tory-boy-name_page.html

~

Britain's network of child drug runners:
http://observer.guardian.co.uk/uk_news/story/0,6903,1593312,00.html

~

Oct. 18, 1999: A book by Texas author J.H. Hatfield claims that George W. Bush was arrested for cocaine possession in 1972.

http://www.salon.com/news/feature/1999/10/18/cocaine/

~

The CIA is sometimes called the Cocaine Importing Agency

'In August of 1996, the San Jose Mercury News published a three-part investigation by Gary Webb into the U.S. government's links to the trade in crack cocaine in South Central Los Angeles.

'Webb's investigation uncovered links between the Central Intelligence Agency's covert war against Nicaragua and convicted Los Angeles drug dealer "Freeway" Ricky Ross, whom the Los Angeles Times in 1994 had dubbed the "one outlaw capitalist most responsible for flooding Los Angeles' streets with mass-marketed cocaine."'

http://www.csun.edu/CommunicationStudies/ben/news/cia/

~~

Heroin in the USA.

According to the Boston Herald, on 14 September 2005, " The presence of South American heroin manufactured in Colombia has been on the rise since 1993."

http://www.csdp.org/news/news/colombia.htm

~

Jose Miguel Vivanco is Human Rights Watch's director for the Americas.

He says the Colombian government is allowing groups that have committed thousands of atrocities, including massacres, killings and kidnappings, to launder illegal fortunes and legitimize their political power.

'The government's approach to demobilization allows paramilitary commanders to put on a show of disarming some troops," Vivanco said. "But the government has not truly attempted to dismantle their mafia-like networks, seize their illegally acquired fortunes or ensure a full cessation of abuses.'"

http://www.csdp.org/news/news/colombia.htm

~

Extracts from a report by John Otis, 22 June 2005, in the Houston Chronicle:

Cocaine.

Last week's United Nations' estimate had cartels producing 670 metric tons in 2004, up from 655 tons the previous year. "The trend in the Andean region has not been good," said Sandro Calvani, who heads the Colombian bureau of the U.N. Office on Drugs and Crime...

Justice Department "drug threat assessment" released in February stated that the availability of cheap, potent cocaine in the United States is on the rise...

Adam Isacson, an analyst at the Center for International Policy... said its members were "dismissive" of White House claims that cocaine production is falling. "They told me: 'We haven't seen any reduction in cocaine leaving the region,' " Isacson said...

Between 2003 and 2004... the CIA numbers show Peru's coca crop shrinking by 13 percent. But Peruvian drug czar Nils Ericcson claims that coca acreage increased by 36 percent.

~~

http://www.csdp.org/news/news/colombia.htm

According to Associated press, 8 May 2005:

On Wednesday, Colombian police announced the arrest of two U.S. Army soldiers for allegedly attempting to sell thousands of rounds of stolen U.S. ammunition to right-wing paramilitary death squads. They are in custody of U.S. officials.

In March, five American soldiers in Colombia were accused of smuggling cocaine to the United States aboard a U.S. military plane. They were whisked off to the United States...

~~~

Drug dealing PM?

'Spin' is the book by Martin Sixsmith, who once worked for the Blair government.

Andy Sheen is one of the characters in 'Spin'.

Andy Sheen is the Prime Minister and leader of the New Project party.

Prime minister Sheen is a former drugs dealer.

~

How do you become Prime Minister?

http://books.guardian.co.uk/reviews/generalfiction/0,6121,1194106,00.html

From the Guardian/Observer review of 'Spin': "Apparently, all you need is a super computer program which digs up dirt about your opponents' pasts so you can threaten them and they won't oppose you.

You don't actually need a clean past yourself: it is possible to become Prime Minister, for instance, having spent a year in Colombia becoming the European arm of a major drugs operation."



~

Stupid British kids

http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/uk_news/education/4356696.stm

The head teacher of Sandwich Technology School in Kent was named secondary head of the year in the annual Teaching Awards.

New figures show that last year only 20% of its students managed to get five good GCSEs including English and maths - compared with 23% in 2001.



~

Monday, October 17, 2005

Guy Burgess, Captain Macnamara, J H Sharp, Tom Wylie and Edouard Pfeiffer.

~

In 1930s Europe, some members of the elite were not quite what they seemed.

Some were secretly fascist, some were secretly communist and some were secretly fond of schoolboys.

Extracts from: ‘The Pink Swastika: Homosexuality in the Nazi Party’ by Scott Lively and Kevin Abrams:

Http://www.geocities.com/Pentagon/Barracks/8706/apsc03.htm

In Great Britain, the pro-Nazis formed the Anglo-German Fellowship (AGF). The AGF was headed by British homosexuals Guy Francis de Money Burgess and Captain John Robert Macnamara.

British Historian John Costello relates how Burgess, Macnamara and J.H. Sharp, the Church of England's Arch- deacon for Southern Europe, took a trip to Germany to attend a Hitler Youth camp.

Costello writes that in the spring of 1936, the trio set off for the Rhineland, accompanied by Macnamara's friend Tom Wylie, a young official in the War Office. Ostensibly they were escorting a group of pro-fascist schoolboys to a Hitler Youth camp.

But from Burgess' uproariously bawdy account of how his companions discovered that the Hitlerjugend satisfied their sexual and political passions, the trip would have shocked their sponsors -- the Foreign Relations Council of the Church of England (Costello: 300).

(Costello's book is 'Mask of Treachery: Spies, Lies, Buggery and Betrayal'. Costello describes Macnamara as a right-wing Conservative M.P. Burgess was a secret Communist devoted to destroying Hitler's Fascism.)

In pre-World War II France, the pro-Nazi faction was represented by the Radical-Socialist Party (RSP) and the Popular Party (PP). The Secretary-General of the RAP was Edouard Pfeiffer.

Costello writes of Guy Burgess' visit to Pfeiffer in Paris shortly before the war: As a connoisseur of homosexual decadence, Pfeiffer had few equals, even in Paris. As an officer of the French Boy-Scout movement, his private life was devoted to the seduction of youth.

Burgess discovered all this when he visited Pfeiffer's apartment in Paris and found... [him] with a naked young man... he explained to Burgess that the young man was a professional cyclist, who just happened to be a member of [homosexual] Jacques Doriot's Popular Party" (ibid. 315).

(According to Miranda Carter in 'Anthony Blunt: His Lives', Burgess found Pfeiffer was playing ping-pong and the naked boy was draped across the table instead of a net.)

~

From a biography of Guy Burgess:

http://www.geocities.com/layedwyer/guy.htm

Burgess was a BBC broadcaster, an agent in M.I.6., secretary to Deputy Foreign Minister Hector McNeil, the British Foreign Secretary.

He was a KGB agent.

Burgess seemed to know everyone, the Rothchilds, Churchill, Muggeridge, Auden, Spender, Neville Chamberlain and more. "

As war approached, Prime Minister Neville Chamberlain, who had also been interviewed by Burgess, entrusted the BBC commentator with secret dispatches which he clandestinely delivered to French leader Edouard Daladier and Italian dictator Benito Mussolini. Chamberlain had hoped that these secret messages would help avert the war that Adolf Hitler so eagerly sought.

~~

From:

John Costello, Love Sex and War: Changing Values, 1939-45. William Collins, London, 1985.

http://www.heretical.com/costello/12sexspy.html

Anthony Blunt, Kim Philby, Guy Burgess et al.

Candidates willing to serve the long-term cause of communism were recruited from the academically gifted sons of the British ruling establishment, studying at Cambridge and Oxford.

These converts to communism, such as the scholarly art historian Anthony Blunt and the wildly promiscuous Guy Burgess, who combined precocious intellects with homosexual inclinations, were suited for the task of burrowing into the British establishment.

They were aided by university colleagues like Donald Maclean and Kim Philby, who were not committed homosexuals but were no less dedicated to the Marxist cause.

The political delusion of the 1930s was that the rise of Fascism and Nazism appeared to force democratic societies into making a choice between the extreme right and the extreme left.

With the encouragement of their Russian control officers, this secret fraternity of politically 'enlightened' young high-flyers kept in touch and furthered each others' careers as they set out to scale the academic and bureaucratic fabric of Britain's 'Establishment', awaiting the call from Moscow when they were in positions of trust and influence.

The Soviet penetration strategy worked so well that by 1941, when Stalin needed to marshal Russia's military production and diplomatic sinews to stave off the German military onslaught in World War II, the Kremlin could rely on a high-level intelligence network that accurately monitored the policy-making decisions of Britain's Foreign Office, the deliberations of the State Department, and the White House itself...

Moscow had tapped the 'Ultra' secret from Britain's tightly guarded Bletchley Park code-breaking facility; had monitored the development of the atomic bomb through agents working on the Manhattan project; and, perhaps most seriously, had penetrated MI5 and MI6, the British military intelligence agencies.

This astonishing success of Blunt, Philby, and Burgess – and perhaps other 'sleepers' – was achieved not by hiring Mata Haris or sending spies on cloak-and-dagger missions, but by the skilful manipulation of a dedicated network of traitors.

One of the most insidious and successful of these wartime moles was Professor Anthony Blunt, the art historian and 'managing director' of the Cambridge homosexual spies, many of whom he had personally recruited.

In 1938 he volunteered his services to the War Office and was posted to the training school for intelligence officers a year later.

When it was noticed that he had visited the Soviet Union in 1935, he was easily able to allay suspicions about left-wing sympathies by pointing to his impeccable connections: as a second cousin of the Queen-Mother, and with his advice on paintings sought and valued by the highest in the kingdom, it was impossible to believe that Blunt was a security risk.

John Costello, Love Sex and War: Changing Values, 1939-45. William Collins, London, 1985.

~~

Anthony Blunt: His Lives
http://books.guardian.co.uk/reviews/biography/0,6121,590539,00.html



~

Saturday, October 15, 2005

Psychic barber

http://www.bbc.co.uk/religion/programmes/everyman/factsheet_mediums.shtml

Gordon Smith.

Gordon Smith is the seventh son of a seventh son, and when he was born the midwife told his mother he would be a healer of some sort.

Now 40 years later Gordon is renowned for his ability to give exact names of people, places and streets and travels around the world demonstrating his mediumship and offering healing and comfort.

Gordon has two grown-up sons and still lives in his native Glasgow where he divides his time as an author - his second book on mediumship, The Unbelievable Truth, comes out this week - with running his busy barber's shop in the city centre, which has given him the nickname 'the psychic barber'.

For more info visit his website: www.psychicbarber.com

http://www.thepsychicbarber.co.uk/tihaccount.html

The following is an account by Tricia Robertson from her book The Truth is Here

PRISM is an acronym for Psychical Research Involving Selected Mediums. This is a research group that was set up to study paranormal phenomena, including mediumship, in a scientific manner.

One of the criticisms of mediums made by sceptics is the hypothesis that “Mediums’ statements are so general that they could apply to anyone.”

Under the auspices of PRISM, this hypothesis is being experimentally tested using statistical mathematical methods.

The first phase of experimentation has used a large number of statistics, having been carried out over a period of two years or so.

Using the first phase protocol, the results showed that mediums’ statements to recipients were indeed meaningful. The odds against the results being due to chance are ten thousand million to one.

Gordon Smith was one of the mediums who willingly participated in this first phase. The statistical analysis of his results always showed a high degree of accuracy to the intended recipient. It was because of the high standard of his work that he was asked to give a demonstration of his mediumship at Glasgow University at the request of the Scottish Society for Psychical Research. No one was disappointed.

~

http://scotlandonsunday.scotsman.com/spectrum.cfm?id=1203212003

The world-famous spiritual medium Gordon Smith runs a barber’s shop in his native Glasgow.

He spoke to Scotland on Sunday:

HOW DID IT ALL START?

When I was a little boy, I saw the spirit of a friend of the family. A man who had been deceased for just over a week appeared before me in the garden in broad daylight. He was solid, three-dimensional and spoke in an ordinary fashion. There was nothing scary or malevolent about him. It wasn’t until I reported the incident to my mother that there was any reaction. She freaked out.

WHY DO BIRDS SUDDENLY APPEAR EVERY TIME YOU ARE NEAR?

They are obviously aware of the spiritual energy around me and all mediums who work between the two worlds - after all, isn’t a bird just a spirit in the sky?

WHERE DO WE GO WHEN WE DIE?

Love lifts us up where we belong. I believe we shall find ourselves with the people we have known and loved in our lives, in a world filled with love, light and laughter. We will grow according to our own spirituality and according to all the good deeds we have created in this earth life. So the better you are in this world, the more you create good vibrations - and the more good vibrations you create, the higher you will be lifted.

WHAT can I DO TO MAKE PEOPLE LOVE ME?

Be yourself in the face of all things, never try to be more than you can be and accept your life for what it is.

HOW CAN YOU HEAL SOMEONE WHO DOESN’T WANT TO HEAL?

You can’t. Healing begins when the person wants to be healed. Some people suffer in this world and because of it become stronger. When you feel ready to face the world again after your suffering, the healing will begin.

WHEN YA’ TAKE A HOLIDAY IS THIS WHAT YOU WANT?

I never can say goodbye to the fair city of Glasgow. Even when I travel all over the world I feel connected to my home city. I used to think that wherever I laid my hat was my home, but I know that my heart belongs to Glasgow.

SO WHAT’S NEW TO YOU?

Every day is a new day. Every experience is new when you live in the moment.



~~

Friday, October 14, 2005

The Bush Political Machine and Organized Crime

http://www.globalresearch.ca/index.php?context=viewArticle&code=PAR20051006&articleId=1046


Robert Parry, at Global Research 6 October 2005, wrote about the Bush political machine and organised crime:

Parry refers to new allegations that link business associates of GOP lobbyist Jack Abramoff, an ally of both DeLay and Rove, to the gangland-style murder of casino owner Konstantinos “Gus” Boulis in Fort Lauderdale, Florida, in 2001.

Parry lists some of George H.W. Bush’s 'unsavory associations':

1. with a Nicaraguan contra network permeated by cocaine traffickers,
2. with Rev. Sun Myung Moon’s 'multi-million-dollar money-laundering operations',
3. and with anti-communist Cuban extremists tied to acts of international terrorism. [For details on these cases, see Robert Parry’s Secrecy & Privilege: Rise of the Bush Dynasty from Watergate to Iraq .]

Parry writes:

On Sept. 27, 2005 – in possibly the most troubling of these cases – Fort Lauderdale police charged three men, including reputed Gambino crime family bookkeeper Anthony Moscatiello, with Boulis’s murder. Boulis was gunned down in his car on Feb. 6, 2001, amid a feud with an Abramoff business group that had purchased Boulis’s SunCruz casino cruise line in 2000.
As part of the murder probe, police are investigating payments that SunCruz made to Moscatiello, his daughter and Anthony Ferrari, another defendant in the Boulis murder case. Moscatiello and Ferrari allegedly collaborated with a third man, James Fiorillo, in the slaying. [For more on the case, see Sun-Sentinel, Sept. 28, 2005 .]

The SunCruz deal also led to the August 2005 indictment of Abramoff and his partner, Adam Kidan, on charges of conspiracy and wire fraud over a $60 million loan for buying the casino company in 2000. Prosecutors allege that Abramoff and Kidan made a phony $23 million wire transfer as a fake down payment.

In pursuing the casino deal, the Abramoff-Kidan group got help, too, from DeLay and Rep. Robert W. Ney, R-Ohio, the Washington Post reported. Abramoff impressed one lender by putting him together with DeLay in Abramoff’s skybox at FedEx Field during a football game between the Washington Redskins and the Dallas Cowboys.

Ney placed comments in the Congressional Record criticizing Boulis and later praising the new Abramoff-Kidan ownership team. [Washington Post, Sept. 28, 2005]

After the SunCruz sale, tensions boiled over, as Boulis and Kidan got into a fistfight. Kidan claimed that Boulis threatened his life. Two months later, however, Boulis was the one who was shot to death when a car pulled up next to him and a gunman opened fire. Lawyers for Abramoff and Kidan say their clients know nothing about the murder.

Police, however, are investigating financial ties between the Abramoff-Kidan group and Moscatiello and Ferrari.

In a 2001 civil case, Kidan testified that he had paid $145,000 to Moscatiello and his daughter, Jennifer, for catering and other services, although court records show no evidence that quantities of food or drink were provided. SunCruz also paid Ferrari’s company, Moon Over Miami, $95,000 for surveillance services.

Kidan told the Miami Herald that the payments had no connection to the Boulis murder. “If I’m going to pay to have Gus killed, am I going to be writing checks to the killers?” Kidan asked. “I don’t think so. Why would I leave a paper trail?”

Kidan also said he was ignorant of Moscatiello’s past. In 1983, Moscatiello was indicted on heroin-trafficking charges along with Gene Gotti, brother of Gambino crime boss John Gotti. Though Gene Gotti and others were convicted, the charges against Moscatiello – identified by federal authorities as a former Gambino bookkeeper – were dropped.

White House Ties.

Abramoff’s influence has reached into Bush’s White House, too, where chief procurement officer David H. Safavian resigned last month and then was arrested on charges of lying to authorities and obstructing a criminal investigation into Abramoff’s lobbying activities.

Rep. Ney and former Christian Coalition leader Ralph Reed were among influential Republicans who joined Safavian and Abramoff on an infamous golf trip to Scotland in 2002. Safavian is a former lobbying partner of anti-tax activist Grover Norquist, another pillar of right-wing politics in Washington and another longtime Abramoff friend. [Washington Post, Sept. 20, 2005]

Abramoff also has boasted of his influence with Bush’s top political adviser Karl Rove.
While helping the scandal-plagued conglomerate Tyco International Ltd. fend off new taxes and insure continued federal contracts, Abramoff cited his influence with Rove as well as powerful congressmen, including DeLay, according to a written statement by Tyco general counsel Timothy E. Flanigan.

Abramoff told Tyco officials that “he had contact with Mr. Karl Rove” about Tyco’s concerns, said Flanigan, who made the disclosures to the Senate during his confirmation hearing as Bush’s nominee to be deputy attorney general.

A White House spokesman said Rove had no recollection of a discussion with Abramoff about Tyco, but Rove’s personal assistant Susan Ralston had previously worked as Abramoff’s secretary. [Washington Post, Sept. 23, 2005]

College Republicans.

The roots of these latest scandals reach back a quarter century to the early days of the Reagan Revolution. During that heady period for young conservatives, Abramoff and Norquist won control of the College Republicans organization in Washington, with Abramoff as chairman and Norquist as executive director.

In the book, Gang of Five, author Nina Easton wrote that the Abramoff-Norquist leadership transformed the College Republicans into a “right-wing version of a communist cell – complete with purges of in-house dissenters and covert missions to destroy the enemy left.”

Under Abramoff and Norquist, the College Republicans also allegedly began tapping into Rev. Moon’s mysterious well of nearly unlimited cash. In 1983, Rep. Jim Leach of Iowa, then chairman of the GOP’s moderate Ripon Society, released a study saying the College Republican National Committee “solicited and received” money from Moon’s Unification Church in 1981.
Leach said the Korean-based Unification Church has “infiltrated the New Right and the party it wants to control, the Republican Party, and infiltrated the media as well.”

Before Leach could finish the press conference, Norquist disrupted the meeting with accusations that Leach was lying. For its part, Moon’s Washington Times dismissed Leach’s charges as “flummeries” and mocked the Ripon Society as a “discredited and insignificant left-wing offshoot of the Republican Party.”

To this day, largely through lavish spending on right-wing causes, Moon has made his cult-like movement a political powerhouse within conservative circles. However, evidence has continued to mount that Moon’s operation is a complex web of secretive businesses and groups that launder millions of dollars from suspicious sources in Asia and South America into the U.S. political system.

Moon has subsidized not only media outlets, such as the pro-Republican Washington Times, but conservative infrastructure, including direct-mail operations, think tanks and political conferences. Moon’s organization also has funneled money directly into the pockets of former President Bush and other leading politicians. [For details, see Secrecy & Privilege .]

Abramoff and Kidan, the co-defendants in the SunCruz fraud case, also became friends from their time with the College Republicans.

After leaving the College Republicans, Abramoff and Norquist moved over to a Reagan-support organization called Citizens for America, which sponsored a 1985 “summit meeting” of anti-communist “freedom fighters” from around the world.

The Nicaraguan contras – who were gaining a reputation for brutality, corruption and drug trafficking – were represented at the summit, as was Angolan rebel leader Jonas Savimbi, who was condemned by human rights groups for gross abuses, including widespread murders, rapes and mutilations.

As the Cold War was ending in 1989, Abramoff tried his hand at movie producing, churning out an anti-communist action thriller called “Red Scorpion,” which was subsidized by South Africa’s white-supremacist regime. [For details, see Salon.com’s “The Tale of Red Scorpion .”]

In Power.

The Republican conquest of the U.S. Congress in 1994 gave Abramoff’s career another twist as he found himself in position to exploit his close ties to hard-line conservatives, such as DeLay and House Speaker Newt Gingrich.

Abramoff signed up with the lobbying firm of Preston Gates Ellis & Rouvelas Meeds before moving to Greenberg Traurig.

Last year, on the tenth anniversary of the Republican takeover, conservative writer Andrew Ferguson lamented Abramoff’s key role in getting Republicans to forsake their rhetorical war on big government and corruption, in favor of dividing up the spoils.

“For 25 years Abramoff has been a key figure in the conservative movement that led to the 1994 Republican Revolution, which once promised ‘to drain the swamp’ in Washington, D.C.,” Ferguson wrote.

But instead, Abramoff became “the first Republican to discover that pretending to advance the interests of conservative small-government could, for a lobbyist, be as insanely lucrative as pretending to advance the interests of liberal big-government,” Ferguson wrote. “The way a winner knows he’s won is by cashing in his chips.”

Abramoff scored big by representing Indian tribes that needed political clout for their gambling operations.

Ferguson wrote, “Abramoff's ingenuity quickly earned him a reputation as the premier lobbyist for Indians in Washington – though he only worked for casino-owning tribes, who were, after all, the only ‘free market laboratories’ that could afford Washington lobbyists. He regularly arranged fact-finding trips for congressmen and their staffs to the casinos, especially those with golf courses.”

Branching out, Abramoff represented the textile industry in the Marianas islands, a U.S. protectorate that could stick “Made in the USA” labels on clothing produced in sweatshops free from U.S. labor regulations. Abramoff flew in congressmen for tours and a chance to play golf at a scenic course. DeLay was so impressed that he hailed the islands as “a perfect Petri dish of capitalism.” [Weekly Standard, Dec. 20, 2004 ]

Abramoff had learned the flexible ethics of Washington politics during the final days of the Cold War when ideology justified rubbing shoulders with corrupt “freedom fighters.” But he and his legion of protégés managed to adapt those dubious lessons to the “free market” era of Republican rule.

The end result has been a noxious “crony capitalism” that has seeped into nearly all U.S. government policies, from the War on Terror to the Iraq War to the Hurricane Katrina recovery effort.




~~

Thursday, October 13, 2005

Female film stars

http://www.glbtq.com/arts/film_actors_lesbian.html

Teresa Theophano , at glbtq, has written about lesbian film stars.

She points out:

1. A "lavender marriage," is one between a gay male star and and a lesbian stars 'for reasons of career insurance and social approval'.

2. A "sewing circle," is a gathering of Hollywood lesbians.

Theophano tells us about Nazimova:

'Bisexual' actress Nazimova had long-term involvement with 'gay' actor Charles Bryant.

In 1918, Nazimova moved to Hollywood. She bought a large Spanish-style house, the Garden of Allah, a hotel and apartment house where a number of Hollywood stars would live.

In the 1920s, Nazimova became one of the most popular movie stars in America.

Reportedly, Nazimova had 'lesbian relationships' with Mercedes de Acosta, stage actress Eva Le Gallienne, film director Dorothy Arzner, and Oscar Wilde's 'lesbian' niece Dolly.

The 'Motion Picture Producers and Distributors of America' was formed in 1922. It brought in the Motion Picture Production Code in 1929.

The Code, also known as the Hays Code, decreed that there would be no "immorality" or "impropriety" on screen - only chaste kisses and heterosexual characters.

The Code was applied to actors' private lives; and drug use, adultery, sexual promiscuity, and especially homosexuality were grounds for blacklisting.

According to Theophano:

'The consolidation of the movie industry into a few powerful studios rendered gay and lesbian actors particularly vulnerable...

'Many lesbian actresses retreated ever more deeply into the closet, dating or even marrying men in order to appear heterosexual'.

Marlene Dietrich remained 'openly bisexual' and Tallulah Bankhead 'appeared unconcerned about the gossip surrounding... (her) sexuality'.

During Hollywood's golden age 'Hollywood lesbians tended to socialize at private parties.'

Nazimova and Salka Viertel, 'a lesbian screenwriter', organised parties.

According to Diana McLellan, Greta Garbo and Marlene Dietrich enjoyed a brief affair.

Garbo never married and 'became famously reclusive after her retirement', aged 36.

Dietrich, who had had a husband and child in her early 20s, 'maintained her notoriously seductive ways with both men and women throughout her long career'.

Reportedly, De Acosta and Le Gallienne, 'aside from their relationships with each other and Nazimova, both became involved with Garbo at different times; de Acosta also had an affair with Dietrich.'

Tallulah Bankhead 'was intimate with one of the only openly lesbian actresses of the time, comedienne Patsy Kelly. Bankhead reportedly had affairs with both Dietrich and Garbo and also claimed to have slept with Barbara Stanwyck'.

In her memoirs and conversations, film actress Louise Brooks 'reminisced about affairs with women, including a tryst with Garbo'.

Other actresses rumored to be lesbian or bisexual, 'including Janet Gaynor, star of A Star is Born (1937), and Mary Martin, best known for her Peter Pan role. Reportedly, the "best friends" both had "lavender marriages," to a costume designer and an interior decorator, respectively'.

Film actress Lily Tomlin's support of gay rights led many to suspect her lesbianism for decades. She remained hushed about her sexual orientation until early 2001. The statement she made concerning her thirty-year relationship with writer Jane Wagner 'was not entirely unambiguous'.

Actress and comedienne Ellen DeGeneres's public coming out in 1997 'was a landmark in the advancement of lesbians in the entertainment industry. The well-publicized relationship Ellen maintained with film actress Anne Heche ... made them for a while the only high-profile out lesbian couple in Hollywood'.

In 1993, actress Amanda Bearse became the first prime-time television lesbian to come out. 'She reported that her announcement, prompted by a threat of "outing," had no negative repercussions on her career'.

Bearse remained a part of the cast of Married with Children until its 1997 finale.

Former child star Drew Barrymore and current It-Girl Angelina Jolie 'are open about their bisexuality ... actress Ione Skye 'went public about her relationship with lesbian model Jenny Shimizu'.

Actress Sandra Bernhard 'has also been forthcoming about her bisexuality - and about her involvement with superstar singer Madonna - for years'.

'Actress Margaret Cho proclaimed herself bisexual in the late 1990s.'

Reportedly, out lesbians include Guinevere Turner, Cheryl Dunye and Leisha Hailey, half of the out lesbian pop duo The Murmurs.

Anne Heche was cast in a romantic lead opposite Harrison Ford in Six Days Seven Nights (1998) after acknowledging her relationship with Ellen DeGeneres.

'The most recent, high-profile coming out' was that of actress Rosie O'Donnell.

O'Donnell declared in March 2002, on ABC's Primetime Thursday, that she is in fact a lesbian mom.

Over the years, 'rumors of lesbianism or bisexuality have persisted about several Hollywood actresses' such as:

Catherine Deneuve,
Kristy McNichol,
Helen Hunt,
actress and musician Queen Latifah,
and actress and singer Whitney Houston.

According to Theophano:

'The multiple Academy Award-winning Jodie Foster occupies a special place in the hearts of many lesbians. She often plays relatively butch on screen, but refuses to discuss her private life at all... Actor Russell Crowe mentioned that Foster influenced his band's song "Other Ways of Speaking," which is about "meeting somebody that you think [you] could easily fall in love with . . . but they . . . in fact play for a different team."'

~~

http://www.glbtq.com/arts/acosta_m.html

Patricia Juliana Smith, at glbtq.com, wrote about Mercedes de Acosta (1893-1968).

~~

http://www.rowfant.demon.co.uk/nazimova.htm

'IN THE 1920's there were four glorious female stars in Hollywood Heaven: all imported from Europe. Adored by their fans, rich and famous, all were acquainted with Hollywood's most nimble lesbian Lothario - the writer Mercedes de Acosta....



~

Belief in God

http://www.guardian.co.uk/g2/story/0,3604,1590776,00.html

'The Story of God' by Robert Winston is published by Transworld.

Extracts from Winston's latest book:

...A Harvard psychologist named Gordon Allport did some key research in the 1950s on various kinds of human prejudice and came up with a definition of religiosity that is still in use today.

He suggested that there were two types of religious commitment -

1. extrinsic

2. intrinsic.

Extrinsic religiosity he defined as religious self-centredness. Such a person goes to church or synagogue as a means to an end - for what they can get out of it...

Allport thought that intrinsic religiosity was different. He identified a group of people who were intrinsically religious, seeing their religion as an end in itself. They tended to be more deeply committed; religion became the organising principle of their lives, a central and personal experience.

In support of his research, Allport found that prejudice was more common in those individuals who scored highly for extrinsic religion.

The evidence generally is that intrinsic religiosity seems to be associated with lower levels of anxiety and stress, freedom from guilt, better adjustment in society and less depression.

On the other hand, extrinsic religious feelings - where religion is used as a way to belong to and prosper within a group - seem to be associated with increased tendencies to guilt, worry and anxiety...

Richard Dawkins, our best-known Darwinist and a ferocious critic of organised religion, notes that religion seems to be, on the face of it, a cost rather than a benefit:

"Religious behaviour in bipedal apes occupies large quantities of time. It devours huge resources. A medieval cathedral consumed hundreds of man-centuries in its building. Sacred music and devotional paintings largely monopolised medieval and Renaissance talent. Thousands, perhaps millions, of people have died, often accepting torture first, for loyalty to one religion against a scarcely distinguishable alternative. Devout people have died for their gods, killed for them, fasted for them, endured whipping, undertaken a lifetime of celibacy, and sworn themselves to asocial silence for the sake of religion."

...In his book Darwin's Cathedral, David Sloan Wilson, professor of biology and anthropology at Binghamton University in New York state, says that religiosity emerged as a "useful" genetic trait because it had the effect of making social groups more unified... The better the religion was at producing an organised and disciplined group, the more effective they would have been at staying alive, and hence at passing their genes on to the next generation. This is what we mean by "natural selection": adaptations which help survival and reproduction get passed down through the genes...

And it is easy to suggest a mechanism by which religious beliefs could help us to pass on our genes. Greater cohesion and stricter moral codes would tend to produce more cooperation, and more cooperation means that hunting and gathering are likely to bring in more food. In turn, full bellies mean greater strength and alertness, greater immunity against infection, and offspring who develop and become independent more swiftly. Members of the group would also be more likely to take care of each other, especially those who are sick or injured. Therefore - in the long run - a shared religion appears to be evolutionarily advantageous, and natural selection might favour those groups with stronger religious beliefs.

But this is not the whole story. Although religion might be useful in developing a solid moral framework - and enforcing it - we can quite easily develop moral intuitions without relying on religion.

Psychologist Eliot Turiel observed that even three- and four-year-olds could distinguish between moral rules (for example, not hitting someone) and conventional rules (such as not talking when the teacher is talking). Furthermore, they could understand that a moral breach, such as hitting someone, was wrong whether you had been told not to do it or not, whereas a conventional breach, such as talking in class, was wrong only if it had been expressly forbidden. They were also clearly able to distinguish between prudential rules (such as not leaving your notebook next to the fireplace) and moral rules.

This would suggest that there is a sort of "morality module" in the brain that is activated at an early age. Evidence from neuroscience would back this up, to a degree. In my last book, The Human Mind, I noted that certain brain areas become activated when we engage in cooperation with others, and that these areas are associated with feelings of pleasure and reward. It also seems that certain areas of the brain are brought into action in situations where we feel empathy and forgiveness.

So religion does not seem to be produced by a specific part of our psychological make-up...

Bouchard has consistently found in many of his studies that intrinsic religiosity -which seems to incorporate a notion of spirituality - is much more likely to be inherited. Extrinsic religiosity tends to be a product of a person's environment and direct parental influence...

· The Story of God by Robert Winston is published by Transworld

~

Tuesday, October 11, 2005

Indian sex workers

http://www.newindpress.com/NewsItems.asp?ID=IER20051010050910&Page=R&Title=Kerala&Topic=0


Newindpress.com, 11 October 2005, reported on male sex workers in Kerala.

J Kumar (not his real name), a male sex worker for 14 years said: "Certainly things are much better now than when I began.

"I got into this when as a teenager and I have not looked back. We are a group of a dozen males and have certain places where we get our customers," Kumar told IANS.

The number of male sex workers in the state has increased, said S K Hari, the team leader of the Hindustan Latex Family Planning Promotion Trust, which is a project support unit of the Kerala State AIDS Control Society."I have studied the community for the past decade. Certainly, there is a remarkable turnaround in the activities and their well being," he added.

"What we are interested in is the health aspect. We hold routine classes for the safe workers and advise them on safe sex," added Hari.

Close to 80 percent of the male sex workers in 53 groups surveyed by Hari and his team hail from the lower middle class society and do it for money."Being a male-to-male activity, we do not have much of a problem compared to female commercial sex workers," said Kumar. The clients come from all socio-economic levels of the state's population and are aged between 17 and 62 years.Hari's studies classify the sex workers into various types.

"One group is made of those who are happy being a sex worker and their only problem is that they feel that the social environment is still not favourable, while some constantly ask themselves why they are into this," said Hari.

Hari's studies also claim that there was a higher level of emotional satisfaction among the male sex workers."Among female sex workers very few regular clients have any emotional attachment," said he.

~~

http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/south_asia/3886883.stm

AIDS in India.

India has one of the highest infection rates - and more than five million HIV/Aids cases.

From the BBC website:

In a corner of the St Katherine's Home in Bombay (Mumbai) a group of children are enjoying their playtime.

But despite their singing and laughter these are not typical five-year-olds - all of them are HIV positive.

They were infected by their parents before they were born and were brought here sick and, in some cases, close to death.

In a society where families are the main source of support, they are looked after by nurses and nuns.

Sister Shanti has 30 children in her care at this orphanage.

She says the hardest part for her is when people turn their back on children as young as these.

"It disturbs me when people discriminate against them.

"They have this disease through no fault of their own. They too have a right to live," she says.

For years many in India ignored the growing threat of Aids. Many simply could not imagine it was something that could affect them.

Down a crowded street in the heart of Bombay is the Unison clinic, one of the few in the city that deals with HIV patients.

Ram Kewar is on one of his regular visits - he is among 20 HIV-infected people who come here every day.

He was infected by the virus a few years ago and since then has passed it on to members of his family.

He says he had never even heard of the disease, far less about how it can be transmitted.
"I thought it was just my fate to have got it. It was only much later that I found out why it had happened to me."

The new Indian government has identified Aids as one of its priorities.

But the biggest problem is combating ignorance - and that includes people who are very influential.

Sanjay Nirupam is a politician belonging to the right-wing Shiv Sena party, an ally of the former Indian government and the main opposition party in Bombay.

He believes the issue is being overplayed.

"One always hears about Aids and how it's this big problem. But I have personally never come across anyone with Aids or seen anyone dying of the disease," he says.

"I think it's just hype."

But it's a problem which is not just confined to the poor or uneducated, or even the conservative.
In a trendy Bombay cafe young men and women draw on cigarettes and sip long cocktails.

They are part of cosmopolitan Bombay's elite - upwardly mobile, liberal and well-informed.
This is one section of Indians who are more open to talking about Aids - but they would never think of doing so at home.

"It has to do with sex and that's something which is an absolute taboo," says twenty-something Rocky Bhatia.

"Most families simply will not bring it up."

But there's hope at the other end of the social divide.

Falkland Road right in the heart of the city is Bombay's red light district.

For years activists have worked closely with the sex workers operating out of tiny rooms and filthy alleyways off this busy street.

It's a move that is now paying dividends.

Monica is a sex-worker who has seen many of her colleagues die.

In the past decade, Aids has claimed the lives of thousands of sex workers. Now they are learning to be more careful.

Volunteers regularly visit every brothel handing out boxes of condoms and carrying out regular medical tests.

"If a customer refuses to use a condom we return his money and turn him away," says Monica.

"It doesn't matter how much money he offers us. Our lives are more important."

It is a small sign of success for a problem that needs to be tackled on a much larger scale.

Otherwise, it is estimated that in the next 10 years India could have more Aids cases than all of Africa.


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Monday, October 10, 2005

Majority of parents fail to report missing children

http://www.the-childrens-society.org.uk/whoareyou/media/SG_Feature/6882/173/

http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/main.jhtml?xml=/news/2005/10/10/nrun10.xml&sSheet=/news/2005/10/10/ixhome.html

CHARITY CALLS FOR CHILDREN'S REFUGES AS PARENTS FAIL TO REPORT MISSING CHILDREN

The Children's Society is urgently calling for a national network of refuges for runaway children as new research today Monday October 10 reveals many parents are not reporting their children missing and thousands are being harmed on the streets.

An estimated 100,000 children aged under 16 run away from home or care overnight each year in the UK and are mainly fleeing family conflict, abuse or neglect. This figure has not changed since similar research was conducted in 1999. According to the new research conducted by The Children's Society with the University of York, which surveyed 11,000 children, aged 14–16:

Two thirds say their parents or carers did not report them missing to the police

One in six say they were forced to sleep rough or with strangers

One in 12 say they were hurt or harmed while away from home

The charity is alarmed that so many children say they were not reported missing as this puts them at greater risk of being harmed on the streets and forced into criminal activity. More than one in 10 children in the survey said they were forced to beg, steal or resort to other dangerous survival strategies. Local authorities in England are required to offer help to young runaways but support services on the ground are patchy or non-existent.

The Runaway Helpline , which takes calls from 8,000 children a month, says its operators often feel the frustration of not being able to refer distressed children to safe accommodation. There are only three official refuges for runaways in the UK with a total of 10 beds - one for every 10,000 children who run away each year. Government funding for two of these refuges ends in March next year (2006).

Bob Reitemeier, The Children's Society's chief executive says the charity is deeply concerned about the welfare of these vulnerable children:

"Ten refuge beds is not enough. Unless the government funds a national network of refuges for runaways, thousands more children will slip into the hands of dangerous adults and be harmed."

"The number of children who aren't reported missing is alarmingly high. If the police are not alerted, and children stay away from home, they will be left seeking help from adults who may harm, hurt, abuse and exploit them. We need to offer them a safe alternative, and that's why we need these refuges."

The campaign call is being backed by the Association of Chief Police Officers. Deputy Assistant Commisioner Richard Bryan says:

"I wholeheartedly support the Children's Society campaign to improve the safety of young runaways. These youngsters are very vulnerable and a network of refuges to provide places of safety makes simple, practical sense. I would add to this a plea to parents and carers to report missing children to the police. Early notification can make the vital difference in cases of abduction and may also prevent other harms such as abuse or becoming involved in crime. It is a surprise that there is so often a delay in the reporting of young runaways and that some of them are never reported - this only adds to the risks involved."

The campaign is being backed by celebrities, such as Ms Dynamite, George Michael, Helena Bonham Carter, Will Young and the cast of Coronation Street and Emmerdale, plus a coalition of organisations including The National Missing Persons Helpline, NSPCC, and existing refuge providers. The Government has launched successful initiatives aimed at runaways, however, the proportion of children running away has not fallen in the past six years. The Children's Society believes the Government now urgently needs to take a more direct approach by funding a network of refuges.

The charity believes these refuges should be open 24 hours a day and be located in confidential urban and rural locations. The aim is to give children a safe place where they can talk in confidence about their reasons for running and to give trained workers time to make proper assessments, especially on child protection issues.

A similar system of federally funded shelters for runaways and a helpline called the National Runaways Switchboard (NRS) has been in existence in the USA since the 1970s. As part of the charity's lobbying campaign, Maureen Blaha, chief executive of the NRS, has been invited to speak to Parliamentarians at a meeting in Parliament this week. MPs are being encouraged to sign Early Day Motion 393 tabled by the Liberal Democrat MP Paul Burstow calling for 'the swift establishment of a national network of safe places for children and young people.'

For more information about The Children's Society's Safe & Sound campaign visit the charity's website www.childrenssociety.org.uk/safeandsound



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Sunday, October 09, 2005

Football

http://www.petertatchell.net/sport/justin%20fashanu.htm

Peter Tatchell: "Justin Fashanu was the first and last professional footballer to be open about his homosexuality. That took courage. Others have not shown similar honesty and bravery. At the time, he and I knew of 12 top footballers who were either gay or bisexual. None have followed Fashanu's example of openness."

http://myweb.lsbu.ac.uk/~stafflag/football.html#Pele

According to Ross Slater in New Nation, 7th. February, 2000:

"Pele, the greatest footballer of all time, has revealed that his first sexual experience was with an older man... 'It was with a homosexual that all our team used to go out with'."

The Observer Sport, 22nd. October, 2000: "Pelé blames Maradona for spreading worldwide rumours that the Brazilian had a homosexual affair with a coach - and claims the reason was jealousy. The spat between the world's two most famous footballers emerges in a new book to be published next week in Britain. Pelé and Maradona both have autobiographies released this month. In Pelé: His Life and Times, the great man dismisses the story that he had confessed a gay affair with one of the coaches in charge of young players at his Brazilian club, Santos. Pelé claims Maradona was jealous of his status - and that led him to starting the rumour last year."

~

Where are all the gay footballers? by Liz Kershaw in The Independent:

(The Thursday Review, 16th. August, 2001, page 17. An article based on the Radio 5 Live programme Pride vs Prejudice hosted by Julian Worricker on 14th. August, 2001.)

"It was an interview with the publicist Max Clifford that really brought home how easy it is to be yourself on radio or TV and how comparatively backward the Premiership can be. It made my flesh creep to hear him relate how the chairmen of two top clubs had come to him 'worried about top players' and how he was asked to set about 'creating a false identity' for those stars. He then arranged for them to be seen and photographed and even get engaged to 'beautiful women'.

"Imagine being forced to live that kind of ghastly lie. Sick, isn't it? And all to keep the sponsors happy and the crowds off their backs. Football. What a fantastic family game it is. David Beckham says he's happy to be a gay icon but remember how he went bonkers when he was subjected to crowd abuse over his friendship with Elton John. No wonder there are players who keep up the pretence of being straight and who are in constant fear of blackmailers and the tabloids."

~

http://www.sundayherald.com/45680

Alan Miller :

"Another Scottish drama, The Book Group, took football mad character Rab and allowed him to take his ball games off the pitch but without any worthy wrangling over how his identity might be affected by his indulgence in more than one form of sexual gratification.

"A similar tack was taken in the pulpier drama Footballers’ Wives with Beckham-esque star Conrad Gates indulging in sex with both women and men, with a justification of dazzling metrosexual nonchalance that he wasn’t in fact gay but just “really liked sex”."

~

http://www.mirror.co.uk/news/allnews/page.cfm?objectid=12713191&method=full&siteid=50143

Footballer Freddie Ljungberg:

His good looks, stylish wardrobe and cultured character have also won him a legion of non-footie fans, including women and gay men.

Which has all led, rather predictably, to gossip about his sexuality. Freddie is unfazed by it - although when the conversation turns to women, his giggling does become more hysterical...

In November, Freddie said that he had just started to date a girl. Is he still with her?

"I won't say if it is the same girl. But I am still seeing a girl. I try to keep my personal life private."

Clearly. Freddie has rarely been photographed with a woman.

"There is always speculation about girls and stuff," he adds. "I have a girlfriend and that is how it is."

Is she English, Freddie?

"I have no comment about that," he says before flashing his devilish grin.

~~

Thursday, October 06, 2005

From Nero to Mick Jagger


http://www.conspiracyworld.com/index0075.htm

The following allegations appear in a 'right wing', anti-gay article in www.conspiracyworld.com :

1. Roman Emperors Nero, Caligula, and Commodus engaged in sex with boys... So, too, did those in Pharaoh's court. Alexander the Great loved little boys.

2. When the Spanish Conquistadors conquered Central America and the Yucatan in Mexico, they found that most native Indian priests were sodomites. In their pagan temples were sacred statues depicting gay sex acts.

3. In the 14th century, a Catholic band of crusaders known as the Order of Knights Templar grew in power and riches. Their secret religion was based on worship of an androgynous (1/2 male, 1/2 female) satanic goat god named Baphomet. Homosexual orgies were rumored.

4. Laventi Beria, Stalin's decadent Chief of Secret Police, would have his chauffeur drive him around Moscow in a limo evenings searching for a young girl or boy out walking alone.

5. Hitler... as a young Bohemian streetwalker... sold his body to gay men. In the 1920s, Hitler sexually abused Richard Wagner's grandson, Wieland Wagner (Time magazine, August 15, 1994, p. 56).

Hitler... was catapulted to power largely by the Brown Shirts (SA), a fascist youth organization led by and composed primarily of "butch" type homosexual militarists. The head of the thuggish Brown Shirts was Ernst Roehm, who was a notorious molester of young boys.

6. Jim Bakker, PTL televangelist disgraced and defrocked for sexually abusing church secretary Jessica Hahn, 'actually preferred young boys. He frequently had young homo staffers go swimming nude with him and his top aides'.

7. Father Ritter, the priest who founded Covenant House, a New York City shelter, to "help" homeless teens, 'was discovered to be molesting his charges'. At Boys Town, the famous Catholic boys' orphanage founded by Father Flanagan (played by actor Spencer Tracy in the classic movie), a scandal recently broke when it got out that little boys were being passed around by priests to local gay politicians.

8. Some orphans from Omaha's Boys Town were ... flown to Washington, D.C. for sex parties with top-level Republican Party chieftains.

9. Religious cultist Jim Jones had his choice of boys, girls, and grown-ups among his "congregation" as sex partners.

10. One report says that 'Bill Clinton and a former pal, Arkansas Governor, Winthrop Rockefeller, had a fling. Winthrop, of the monied Rockefeller family, was well known as a homosexual'.

11. Albert Pike, the 19th century occultist who, as Masonry's Sovereign Grand Commander, created its rituals for the 33 degrees of the craft, was himself 'a notorious sodomite'.

12. Former New York Governor Mario Cuomo, a Democrat, has been labeled "Cuomo the Homo." New York's former Mayor, Rudy Giuliani, a Republican, 'has been known to dress up as a woman transvestite'.

New York's Mayor Rudolph Giuliani 'performed on stage as "Rudia," transvestite, at the annual Inner Circle banquet for the elite'. Giuliani now lives in an apartment with two homosexual men

13. The late Senator and Vice-President Hubert Humphrey 'often frolicked about nude in the YMCA swimming pool in Minneapolis'.

President Lyndon B. Johnson 'skinny-dipped with male friends, including evangelist Billy Graham and his Vice President, Hubert'. In fact, the "Y" is a popular meeting place for homo politicians and religious bigwigs.

14. Congressman Gary Condit, 'suspected of having something to do with the disappearance of intern Chandra Levy, is known in the Washington, D.C. gay community as a bisexual'.

15. Male stars 'comedian Danny Kaye and British actor Laurence Olivier were lovers, and comedian Jack Benny was queer as a three-dollar bill'.

16. In her autobiography, Marianne Faithful wrote that, while in bed with her, Mick Jagger said, "If Keith (a member of his band) were here right now, I'd lick him all over."

Mick Jagger 'has talked openly about how much he enjoys performing sex acts on other men'.



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Wednesday, October 05, 2005

Bisexual Africa

http://www.glbtq.com/social-sciences/africa_pre.html

Stephen O. Murray , at glbtq.com, has written about sex in Sub-Saharan Africa.

Murray explains that Africa is, like the rest of the World, bisexual.

Murray points out that most of what we know about traditional African societies was written in the last decade of the nineteenth century or later.

There are reports of homosexuality across every region of the continent.

The colonial era reports are reviewed in Murray and Roscoe's 'Boy-Wives and Female Husbands'.

A few examples:

In the central African Zande culture, before European conquest, it was regarded "as very sensible for a man to sleep with boys when women are not available or are taboo."

English anthropologist E. E. Evans-Pritchard was told that some Azande men had sex with boys "just because they like them."

The adult males paid the families of boy wives, just as they paid for female brides. The two slept together at night, "the husband satisfying his desires between the boy's thighs. When the boy grew up he joined the company and took a boy-wife in his turn. It was the duty of the husband to give his boy-wife a spear and a shield when he became a warrior. He then took a new boy-wife."

One commander, Ganga, told Evans-Pritchard that there were some men who, although they had female wives, still married boys. "When a war broke out, they took their boys with them...
If another man had relations with his boy, the husband could sue the interloper in court for adultery."

The South African Thonga provide another particularly well-documented instance of a boy-wife role.

A number of southern and western African societies also had female husbands, though whether these husbands had sexual relations with their wives is unclear in what has been written.

Gender-crossing homosexuality has been discussed as common in the (Nigerian) Hausa bori cult (and in Afro-Brazilian offshoots of west African spirit-possession religion).

Among the Maale of southern Ethiopia, some males crossed over to feminine roles. Called ashtime, these (biological) males dressed as women, performed female tasks, cared for their own houses, and apparently had sexual relations with men, according to Donald Donham.

One gave Donham a clear statement of the "third gender" conception: "The Divinity created me wobo, crooked. If I had been a man, I could have taken a wife and begotten children. If I had been a woman, I could have married and borne children. But I am wobo; I can do neither."

Among Swahili-speakers on the Kenya coast, particularly in the port of Mombasa, mashoga are transgendered prostitutes who have all the liberties of men and are also welcome in many contexts in which men are prohibited.

The paid partner usually takes the receptive role during intercourse, but it is likely that his inferiority derives from the fact that he is paid to provide what is asked for, rather than from his undertaking a particular sexual role. The one who pays is called the basha (derived from "pasha," a high-ranking official and the local term for the king in packs of playing cards).

Among the Fon, the predominant people in Dahomey (now Benin), Melville Herskovits in the 1930s reported that, after the age at which boys and girls may play together, "the sex drive finds satisfaction in close friendship between boys in the same group . . . . A boy may take the other 'as a woman,' this being called gaglgo, homosexuality. Sometimes an affair of this sort persists during the entire life of the pair".

Most of the reports of homosexual relations not involving differences in age or gender status involved young, unmarried men's sexual relationships with each other.

Kurt Falk wrote about an especially intimate bond of association, soregus, among the southeastern African Naman that included sex both between men and between women (with mutual masturbation the most common form of sex, but also males taking turns at anal penetrations and females using dildoes on each other).

An "exceptionally reliable" Nykakyusa (a people living around what is now the Tanzania/Zimbabwe border) reported to Monica Wilson in the early 1930s that male friends, who live in villages of age-mates when not out herding cattle, generally sleep together.

The Nykakyusa accepted that male friends who danced together would have sexual relations.

"Even if people see them in flagrante delicto, they say it is adolescence (lukulilo), all children are like that: they say that sleeping together and dancing is also adolescence," according to Wilson's elder. He reported that interfemoral intercourse is "what boys mostly do" and also reported anal and oral sex, ("some, during intercourse, work[ing] in the mouth of their friend, and hav[ing] an orgasm").

An Ovimbundu (in Angola) informant, told an ethnographer, "There are men who want men, and women who want women. . . . A woman has been known to make an artificial penis for use with another woman."

Among the Tswana (in addition to homosexuality among the men laboring in the mines), it was reported that back home "lesbian practices are apparently fairly common among the older girls and young women, without being regarded in any way reprehensible." Use of artificial penises was also reported among the Ila and Naman tribes of South Africa.

There are reports of age-differentiated roles in Lesotho. Relationships are initiated voluntarily by one girl who takes a liking to another and simply asks her to be her mummy or her baby, depending on their relative age, according to Judith Gay.

"The most frequently given reason for initiating a particular relationship was that one girl felt attracted to the other by her looks, her clothes, or her actions. . . . Sexual intimacy is an important part of these relationships." Over time, a Sotho may undertake both roles (with different partners) or play the same role with different partners.

Murray concludes:

With reports from hundreds of sub-Saharan African locales of male-male sexual relations and from about fifty of female-female sexual relations, it is clear that same-sex sexual relations existed in traditional African societies, though varying in forms and in the degree of public acceptance.

Much of this same-sex activity was situational or premarital, though there were long-term relationships, too.

The special Christian opposition toward homosexuality was carried to Africa by Europeans and stimulated denials that "the sin not named among Christians" existed among "unspoiled" Africans.


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